Kurihara, M. & Nihon, R. (2010). Care continuity for pediatric patients with
higher cortical dysfunction after traumatic brain injury. Japanese Journal
of Clinical Medicine, 68(1), 63-68.
ABSTRACT: Higher cortical dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most important aspects for rehabilitation. Main etiology is traffic accidents and classification after TBI is diffuse axonal injury, cerebral contusion, etc. Though Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Trail Making Test, etc. are used for assessing higher cortical dysfunction in children, the most important evaluation method is to get information precisely from his/her families and teachers. Memory disturbance, attention deficit and dyscontrol of feeling are the top 3 symptoms of higher cortical dysfunction in children with TBI. Support for re-entrance to schools should be begun as fast as possible with cooperation among hospitals, schools and homes. As many problems are observed in the aspects of study, behavior, communication, etc, a lot of support from the professional staff is necessary. After the school age, support should be continued for adult cases.
Tanaka, K., Kon, N., Ohkawa, N., Yoshikawa, N., & Shimizu, T. (2009).
Does breastfeeding in the neonatal period influence the cognitive function
of very-low-birth-weight infants at 5 years of age?. Brain & Development,
AIM: Breast milk is rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is selectively concentrated in neuronal membranes and is thought to be necessary for optimal neurodevelopment. This study evaluated the relationship between breastfeeding, especially the resultant DHA level in the red blood cell (RBC) membranes of infants, and the cognitive function of very-low-birth-weight infants at 5 years of age.
METHODS: Eighteen patients were classified into groups that were breastfed or formula-fed or both. We measured the DHA concentration in the RBC membranes of 18 preterm infants at 4 weeks of age. To evaluate cognitive function at the age of 5 years, we asked the children to perform five tests: the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Day–Night Test, Kansas Reflection Impulsivity Scale for Preschoolers (KRISP), Motor Planning Test, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.
RESULTS: The DHA level at 4 weeks after birth was significantly higher in the breastfed infants than in the formula-fed infants. The scores for the Day–Night Test, KRISP, and Motor Planning Test were significantly higher in the breastfed group. There were significant correlations between the scores for the Day–Night Test and for the KRISP and the level of DHA at 4 weeks of age.
CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding in the neonatal periods increases the DHA level in preterm infants and may have an important influence on brain development not only during early infancy but also during the preschool years, especially in terms of cognitive function.
Hattori, J. (2002). Higher brain dysfunction in benign childhood epilepsy
with centrotemporal spike and atypical benign partial epilepsy of
childhood. Brain and Development, 34(6), 484-490.
ABSTRACT: Although some recent studies have reported various cognitive impairments and behavioral disorders in children having benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spike (BCECT), it is still commonly believed that BCECT does not cause any definite neuropsychological impairment. In addition, reported impairments range over various cognitive functions, and there is no general agreement on this issue. We performed detailed neuropsychological tests in 17 children with BCECT and analyzed the profiles of their subtests. Atypical benign partial epilepsy of childhood (ABPE) is a type of BCECT in which patients have minor generalized seizures and their EEGs show continuous spike-waves during sleep. We also performed the same tests in five patients with ABPE, and compared the results in the two groups. Neuropsychological tests performed are as follows: Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Revised (WISC-R), Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), Token Test, Calculation, Figure Copying Task, Letter Copying Task, Line Bisection Task, and Line Cancellation Task. Mental processing composite of the K-ABC and FIQ of the WISC-R were within normal limits in all children with BCECT and ABPE, but were generally lower in ABPE than in BCECT. On the other hand, the profiles of subtests of ITPA in children with BCECT revealed the significant feature of the lower scores on verbal expression (p = 0.013) and auditory sequential memory (p = 0.035). Considering the normal scores in the elementary cognitive functions, such as visual and verbal functions and long-term memory, disturbance in the process of executive functions such as flexibility, fluency, and working memory could cause this characteristic profile. ABPE also showed the similar profile in the subtests of ITPA to that of BCECT. It is likely that both groups of children share the common cognitive dysfunction.
Nakamura, M., Watanabe, K., Matsumoto, A., Yamanaka, T., Kumagai,
T., Miyazaki, S., Matsushima, M., & Mita, K. (2001). Williams
syndrome and deficiency in visuospatial recognition. Developmental
Medicine and Child Neurology, 43(9), 617-621.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess the visuospatial abilities of five children with Williams syndrome (four males aged 9 years 3 months, 7 years 11 months, 8 years 1 month, and 10 years 8 months respectively, and one female aged 6 years 3 months). First, the children's visuospatial abilities were examined by asking them to copy a figure. Second, their cognitive processing abilities were assessed using the Japanese Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. This test was used because it is an objective one, standardized in Japan, and is a measure of fluid ability including spatial localization. Participants scored significantly low on the spatial memory subtest indicating that there was a deficit in spatial localization. Children's performance in line copying tasks improved when the dots were in colour. Results suggest a deficit in the dorsal stream of visual cognition, with a relatively preserved ventral stream.
Ohtagaki, A., Maeoka, Y., Shiota, M., & Koeda, T. (1998). A case of
learning-disabled child with a white matter lesion in the left parietal
lobe. Brain and Development, 30(1), 69-74.
ABSTRACT: We reported a learning-disabled boy, 7-year-old and right handedness, who was similar to developmental Gerstmann syndrome. Dyscalcuria, right-left disorientation, dysgraphia and finger agnosia were correlated with his sequential disorder which was clearly presented by Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. In this case, a small infarcted lesion was found in the white matter near the left semioval center on MRI. Hypoperfusion of left parietal lobe was also detected by SPECT. The hemisphere dominant in language was assumed to be on the left side by dichotic listening test. We suggested that left parietal lesion was associated with his higher cortical dysfunction.