Levy-Shraga, Y., Pinhas-Hamiel, O., Kraus-Houminer, E., Landau, H., 
Mazor-Aronovitch, K., Modan-Moses, D., Gillis, D., & Koren, I. (2012). 
Cognitive and developmental outcome of conservatively treated children with 
congenital hyperinsulinism. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism

BACKGROUND: Congenital Hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infants.  Its management can be extremely complicated, and may involve medical therapy and surgery.  The mainstay of the treatment is to maintain normoglycemia, since hypoglycemia during infancy can have severe neurological consequences.

 To assess the cognitive and developmental levels and the adaptive skills achieved by children with CHI who were treated medically over the past decade.  Subjects and methods: Fourteen children with CHI, under the age of 10 years, who received medical treatment only, underwent a physical and neurological examination, and standardized assessments that included the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Edition, or Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) parent questionnaire form.

RESULTS: Twelve children (86%) achieved normal range scores in the cognitive and development assessments (Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development or Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children).  Only two showed cognitive achievements below the normal range.  The Vineland questionnaire, which was based on parental report, showed below normal adaptive skills in eight patients (57%).

CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previous studies showing a high prevalence of neurodevelopmental difficulties in children with congenital hyperinsulinism, our study showed normal cognitive achievements in most children.  This may be attributed to the earlier recognition and better management of the disease in the past decade.

Leitner, Y., Stolar, O., Rotstein, M., Toledano, H., Harel, S.,
Bitchonsky, O., 
Ben-Adani, L., Miller, E., & Ben-Sira, L.
(2009). The neurocognitive 
outcome of mild isolated fetal 
ventriculomegaly verified by prenatal 
magnetic resonance
imaging.  American Journal of Obstetrics & 
, 201(2), 215.e1-6.

OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive outcome of preschool children, prenatal diagnosis of isolated mild ventriculomegaly compared with 2 control groups.

STUDY DESIGN: Case-controlled study at the University Hospital of Tel Aviv between October 1999 and December 2002. Study groups consisted of 12 children with bilateral isolated mild ventriculomegaly, and 16 children with unilateral isolated mild ventriculomegaly, mean age 4.4 years, prenatally diagnosed by both ultrasound and fetal magnetic resonanace imaging. Control groups consisted of 16 children with normal prenatal magnetic resonance imaging and 16 regular kindergarten children. A neurodevelopmental examination and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children were performed.

RESULTS: The neurodevelopmental and Kaufman scores were within normal range in the study groups. No significant differences between the study and control groups for most measures; however, Kaufman achievement score was significantly lower for the bilateral isolated mild ventriculomegaly group (P < .05)="" compared="" with="" the="" kindergarten="" children.="">

CONCLUSION: Preschool children with isolated mild ventriculomegaly performed within normal range compared with the controls. Nevertheless, a significant percentage of the children demonstrated developmental difficulties, lower achievement scores, justifying early school years follow-up.

Oppenheim, D., Koren-Karie, N., Dolev, S., & Yirmiya, N. (2009). Maternal
insightfulness and resolution of the diagnosis are
associated with
secure attachment in preschoolers with
autism spectrum disorders. 
Child Development, 80(2), 519-527.

ABSTRACT: In the current study (a) maternal insightfulness into the experience of the child and (b) resolution with respect to the child’s diagnosis and their associations with children’s security of attachment were examined in a sample of 45 preschoolers (mean age = 49 months) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It was hypothesized that mothers who were insightful and resolved would be more likely to have securely attached children than mothers who were neither insightful nor resolved. The findings supported this hypothesis. The implications of insightfulness and resolution for child attachment in the context of ASD are discussed.

Leitner, Y., Fattal-Valevski, A., Geva, R., Eshel, R., Toledano-Alhadef, H., 
Rotstein, M., Bassan, H., Radianu, B.,
Bitchonsky, O., Jaffa, A. J., &
Harel, S. (2007).
Neurodevelopmental outcome of children with
 growth retardation: A longitudinal, 10-year prospective
study. Journal of Child Neurology, 22(5), 580-587.

ABSTRACT: One hundred twenty-three children with intrauterine growth retardation were prospectively followed from birth to 9 to 10 years of age in order to characterize their specific neurodevelopmental and cognitive difficulties and to identify clinical predictors of such difficulties. Perinatal biometric data and risk factors were collected. Outcome was evaluated at age 9 to 10 by neurodevelopmental, cognitive, and school achievement assessments, Sixty-three children served as controls who were appropriate for gestational age. Significant differences in growth (P < .001),="" neurodevelopmental="" scores="" (p="">< .001),="" intelligence="" quotient="" (iq)="" (p="">< .0001),="" and="" school="" achievements="" measured="" by="" the="" kaufmann="" assessment="" battery="" for="" children="" (p="">< .001)="" were="" found="" between="" the="" children="" with="" intrauterine="" growth="" retardation="" and="" controls.="" children="" with="" intrauterine="" growth="" retardation="" demonstrated="" a="" specific="" profile="" of="" neurocognitive="" difficulties="" at="" school="" age,="" accounting="" for="" lower="" school="" achievements.="" the="" best="" perinatal="" parameter="" predictive="" of="" neurodevelopment="" and="" iq="" was="" the="" cephalization="" index="" (p="">< .001).="" somatic="" catch-up="" growth="" at="" age="" 2="" and="" at="" age="" 9="" to="" 10="" correlated="" with="" favorable="" outcome="" at="" 9="" to="" 10="" years="" of="">

Kaminitz-Berkooz, I. & Shapiro, E. S. (2005). The applicability of curriculum-
based measurement to measure reading in Hebrew. School Psychology
 26(4), 494-519.

ABSTRACT: This study was an initial effort to examine the applicability of Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) procedures to measure reading in a language other than English and more specifically, in Hebrew.  Participants included a sample of 458 students from grades 1-5 from three elementary schools in Israel, 416 from regular education and 42 students from grades 2-5 who were receiving special services in reading.  Students were tested on CBM probes in the winter and spring of the 2002 academic year.  Four characteristics of the CBM measure were evaluated: (1) concurrent validity with two reading sub-scales (decoding and comprehension) of the Kaufman-ABC that had been translated and normed in Israel; (2) student outcomes in reading fluency across grades and across time within grades; (3) ability of the measure to discriminate students with and without reading problems and (4) the sensitivity of the measure when used weekly for progress monitoring.  Results indicated that moderate to strong correlation, coefficients were evident between CBM scores and the K-ABC reading subscales except for grade 4 in the spring.  Also, students showed increased growth across grades and across time within the school year, except for the lack of increase from grade 2 to 3 in the spring.  Students receiving specialized help for reading scored significantly lower on CBM probes when compared with regular education students.  Finally, a gradual week-by-week progress rate in the curriculum comparable to those found with CBM reading in English was also found.  Results suggest that the oral reading fluency metric may be applicable to evaluating reading in Hebrew.  Implications for the use of the metric in other countries and languages are discussed.

Leitner, Y., Heidman, D., Harel, S., & Pick, C. G. (2005). Deficits in spatial 
orientation of children with intrauterine growth retardation. Brain 
Research Bulletin
, 67(1/2), 13-18.

ABSTRACT: The spatial orientation of intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) children versus age-matched controls was examined using two spatial tests. The first test was the radial arm maze (RAM), a navigational test frequently used in animal models. The second test was a subtest from the Kaufman assessment battery for children (K-ABC). The IUGR group comprised 28 children aged 6 years. The control group comprised 29 appropriate-for-gestational age children. The performance of the IUGR children was significantly inferior to controls in both tests. In the RAM test, the ratio between the correct entrances to the total entrances was significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (P <0.001). In the K-ABC, the IUGR group could not perform as well as control children (P <0.001). These results suggest that spatial orientation in IUGR children is inferior to their age-matched controls, possibly contributing to their potential learning difficulties. The present results also suggest that the RAM can be potentially used to test spatial orientation of children at-risk.

Friedman, B. C., Hendeles-Amital, A., Kozminsky, E., Leiberman, A., Friger, M.,
Tarasiuk, A., & Tal, A. (2003). Adenotonsillectomy improves neurocognitive
function in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep, 26(8), 999-

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neurocognitive functions of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), before and after adenotonsillectomy, compared with healthy controls.

DESIGN: Prospective study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine children with OSAS aged 5 to 9 years (mean age, 6.8 +/- 0.2 years) and 20 healthy children (mean age, 7.4 +/- 1.4 years) who served as controls, underwent a battery of neurocognitive tests containing process-oriented intelligence scales. Twenty-seven children in the OSAS group underwent follow-up neurocognitive testing 6 to 10 months after the first evaluation.

RESULTS: Children with OSAS had lower scores compared with healthy children in some Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) subtests and in the general scale Mental Processing Composite, indicating impaired neurocognitive function. No correlation was found between neurocognitive performance and OSAS severity. Six to 10 months after adenotonsillectomy, the children with OSAS demonstrated significant improvement in sleep characteristics, as well as in daytime behavior. Their neurocognitive performance improved considerably, reaching the level of the control group in the subtests Gestalt Closure, Triangles, Word Order, and the Matrix analogies, as well as in the K-ABC general scales, Sequential and Simultaneous Processing scales, and the Mental Processing Composite scale. The magnitude of the change expressed as effect sizes showed medium and large improvements in all 3 general scales of the K-ABC tests.

CONCLUSIONS: Neurocognitive function is impaired in otherwise healthy children with OSAS. Most functions improve to the level of the control group, indicating that the impaired neurocognitive functions are mostly reversible, at least 3 to 10 months following adenotonsillectomy.

Levy, Y., Smith, J., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2003). Word reading
and reading-
related skills in adolescents with Williams
syndrome. Journal of Child
Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines
, 44(4), 576-587.

This study investigated word reading and reading-related skills in 17 Hebrew-speaking individuals with Williams syndrome, ages 11–22. Reading of real words was at the third grade level, yet six participants could not read nonce words at all. The relatively high percentage of nonreaders could be a consequence of the special characteristics of Hebrew orthography, which realizes consonants as letters and vowels as diacritic dots and dashes below and above the line. In the group as a whole, reading real and nonce words did not correlate with rapid naming. Yet, contrary to research on dyslexia, word reading correlated with IQ as well as with performance on phonological awareness tasks.

Burack, J. A., Shulman, C., Katzir, E., Schaap, T., Iarocci, G.,
& Amir, P. N. 
(1999). Cognitive and behavioural
development of Israeli males with 
Fragile X and Down
Syndrome. International Journal of Behavioral 
, 23(2), 519-531.

ABSTRACT: Hebrew translations of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC) and the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) were administered to 17 Israeli males with fragile X and 17 with Down syndrome matched for chronological and mental ages. When differences in the initial baselines were considered, the pattern of findings was generally consistent with previous reports. On the K-ABC, the males with fragile X scored higher on some subtests of the Simultaneous Domain but not on any of those of the Sequential Domain. On the VABS, superior scores of the males with fragile X on the Daily Living Skills and Communication domains is consistent with prior evidence of their relative strength on the former and the specific weakness of persons with Down syndrome on the latter. These differences between the males with fragile X and Down syndrome with regard to functioning on various domains and subdomains highlight the need to carefully examine the profiles of aetiologically homogeneous groups of persons.